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1850 Stanley-Turner Thematic Match
Washington, DC
Researched by Nick Pope

11 February 1850—14 February 1850
Game12345678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Wins
 Charles H. Stanley1½11110001101101111
 James H. Turner 0½0000111001001005
Format: The winner of the first eleven games to be declared the victor, draws not counting.
Thematic Rule: Both players were compelled to start each game 1.e4 e5.
Time Control: None.
Prize: $1000 ($500 a side).

Note: Games 10 through 17 are ordered solely for navigation purposes as the true sequence is unknown at this time. Games highlighted in yellow are missing from this collection.

For some unfathomable reason many historical works attribute John Spencer Turner as Stanley's opponent. I'm not sure how this abomination was started, but, without question, Stanley's opponent was Mr. James Henry Turner, a native of Kentucky and a participant in the tournaments held at Drennon Springs, KY (1846 and 1848) and Blue Lick, KY (1847):

Rachel E. Turner, a native of Montgomery County, Ky., is a daughter of Rezin H. and Rachel Gist. [...] Rachel E. Turner received a good education, principally at Winchester and Richmond, Ky.; she married James H. Turner, March 3, 1846. He was born in Fayette County, Ky., September 30, 1822, received a good education and was a graduate of law at Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky.; he was also a man of fine literary attainments; after practicing law several years he gave up the profession to engage in agricultural pursuits, his wife having inherited the old homestead; he afterward represented the County of Montgomery in the Legislature. He enlisted in the Federal army in the war between the States, but on account of his health failing resigned and died very soon after, October 23, 1863, leaving five children [...]

Roll of the Field and Staff of the Twenty-Fourth Kentucky Volunteer Infantry.

Name: James H. Turner; Rank: Adjutant; Enrolled: Oct. 15, '61; Mustered In When: Jan. 6, '62; Mustered in Where: Lexington, Ky.; Period: 3 yrs.

To Correspondents.—S. L. [and others].—We are not at liberty just now to give full particulars of the coming match. We may state, however, that nearly all the preliminaries are already settled; that it will be played at Washington in the course of next month; that one of the principals in the contest has for some years sustained the reputation of being the strongest player in America, and that its terms are those of equality in the strictest sense.

Mr. Lowenthal has recently played a number of games with Mr. Stanley, who, as our Chess readers know, manages this corner of the Albion. So far the result has been equal. Mr. Stanley himself has now gone to Washington, for the purpose of playing a match there for $500 with a gentleman from the West, whose name we are not at liberty to mention.

The Late Great Match At Washington.—All necessary preliminaries having been duly settled by previous correspondence, the principals in this exciting struggle met for the first time at Washington on the evening of Saturday, the 9th instant, and commenced play on the Monday following. Mr. Turner of Lexington, Kentucky, was accompanied by Mr. E. F—, of Cincinnatti [sic], while Mr. E. E—, a brother Englishman and likewise resident of New York, acted for Mr. Stanley, in the capacity of second. It would be, perhaps, superfluous to remark that, from the time when the approach of the coming trial of skill was first whispered, throughout the entire conduct of the match, the most friendly feelings were manifested by all parties concerned. We may truly say, in fact, that between the combatants, consideration and courtesy for and toward each other formed a leading characteristic of this most harmonious contest. One other feature, as observable in the department of one of the players, we cannot help remarking. We allude to the unflinching courage displayed by Mr. Turner—indeed a fit representative of Kentucky State—in the firm stand which he made against his formidable antagonist, after having been so severely worsted in the first onset. Of the first six games played, Mr. Stanley succeeded in winning five, the remaining game having terminated in a draw. Subsequently to this period of the match, Mr. Turner scored five, against the six obtained by Mr. Stanley; the final state of the score, at the conclusion of play on Thursday evening of last week, being consequently as follows:— Stanley, 11; Turner, 5; drawn 1; total of the games played, 17. We shall now proceed to present our readers with a few of the games occurring in this match, premising that each party was bound to play his king's pawn, two squares, for the first move.

Great Match At Chess In The United States,
For One Thousand Dollars.

The amateurs of the Royal game will be gratified to learn that the preliminaries for a grand encounter between Mr. C. G. Stanley, the English player, who so distinguished himself in the celebrated contest at New Orleans, in 1846 [sic], and Mr. J. H. T—, of Louisville, Kentucky, have been definitely settled. As far as we are present are informed, the terms agreed on are, that the match shall take place at Washington, and commence on the 11th of February. The winner of the first eleven games to be conqueror, and entitled to the stakes of 500 dollars on each side. To avoid the tedium so often complained of in what are called the close games, it is stipulated that both players on the first move shall open by advancing the K.'s pawn to his K.'s 4th sq.

The Chess Match At Washington, United States
For 1000 Dollars.-Termination Of The Contest.

By the arrival of the Europa we are favoured with the particulars of this contest, which, with the characteristic impetuosity of our transatlantic friends, has been brought to a close in fewer days than a match of such importance here would have occupied weeks. Owing to the dangerous illness of Mr. Stanley (the English competitor), who for a fortnight previously had been confined to his chamber, the belligerents did not meet at Washington before the 9th of February; the preliminaries, however, were so speedily settled, that play began on the 11th, and by the evening of the 14th the battle, consisting of seventeen games, was at an end!

In games played under such circumstances, it would, of course, be idle to look for any of those profound and thoughtful combinations - those brilliant and daring stratagems, which by turns delight and electrify us in the match games of the best European players of modern days. But though deficient in the higher qualities of Chess skill, there is a certain spirit and piquancy about some of these parties which are sure to render them attractive to the multitude; superadded to which is the interest inseparable from them, of their constituting the first fair stand-up fight at Chess betwixt an Englishman and an American; so that we have little doubt of their commanding a due share of attention from the amateurs of this country, and exciting a good deal of speculation as to the result of a return match, which we hear will come off at New York in a few weeks.

The following is the final score at the conclusion of the play:—
C. Stanley . . . 11Games
J. H. Turner . . . 5
Drawn . . . 1
Total of Games played ... 17

In 1850 a match, which excited considerable interest, was played at the city of Washington. The combatants were Mr. Charles H. Stanley of New York City, and Mr. J. H. Turner of Mount Sterling, Kentucky. The latter gentleman, as is related, imagining that he had discovered and thoroughly analyzed an invincible attack in the King's Knight's Gambit, boldly challenged Mr. Stanley, then the recognised champion of the country. Mr. Turner supposed that by playing the above-mentioned opening whenever he should have the first most, he would be certain of scoring at least one-half of the games. Unfortunately Mr. Stanley, in the very first King's Gambit which occurred, lighted upon a defensive move which paralyzed the attack, and which had escaped the notice of his opponent. Still, Mr. Turner, considering the strength and renown of his adversary came off creditably. The match was commenced on February 11th, and came to an end on February 14th., it resulted Stanley 11, Turner 5, drawn 1.

Monday, 11 February 1850

Our Washington Correspondence.
Washington, Feb. 13, 1850.

[...] The match commenced on Monday last, the 11th instant, when Mr. Stanley won three games, and a fourth was drawn.

The Late Great Match At Washington.—[...] Of the first six games played, Mr. Stanley succeeded in winning five, the remaining game having terminated in a draw. [...]

First Game.

Date: 1850.02.11
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 1)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C26] Vienna
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Bc5 4.Nf3 d6 5.d3
Staunton: We prefer playing 5.d4; because it gives freedom to White's game, while it confines his adversary's.
5...h6 6.Be3 Bb6 7.Ne2
Staunton: Mr. Stanley's old ward, which he acquired, in days long past among the redoubtables of merrie England.
7...Be6 8.Bb3 c6 9.Ng3
Stanley: White's game is now well opened, and his position very commanding, his forces being so concentrated that they are alike available for the purposes of attack or defence.
9...Nbd7 10.0-0 0-0 11.Qe2
Staunton: 11.Qd2 looks much stronger.
Stanley: We conceive this to be an inferior move; as nothing can now prevent White from presently establishing one of his knights at f5.
12.Rad1 Qc7 13.Nh4
Stanley: Had the black queen been at home, White would not have ventured on this move at Mr. Turner could then surely have captured 13...Nxe4.
Staunton: These knights in combination are terrible adversaries to cope with, especially when they gain so favourable a position for attack as the present.
13...Nf8 14.Nhf5
Staunton: After this we should give little for Black's game.
14...Ng6 15.Qd2 Bxe3 16.fxe3
Staunton: For a moment, the necessity of capturing with this pawn seems to retard White's attack, but it is only for a moment, since the opening made for his f-rook and queen to sweep the f-file gives additional force to the assault in a move or two.
16...Kh7 17.Qf2 Rh8
Stanley: This does not give relief where the shoe pinches. Mr. Turner's position was critical even prior to this move; but now his case is quite hopeless.
Staunton: We will not pretend to comprehend the purport of this move, but give it up as quite beyond our fathom.
18.Nxg7 Ng4
Staunton: A light breaks in upon us! Black might have meant, by moving his rook away, to tempt his opponent to take the g-pawn, thinking that if he did so this move of the knight would enable the black king to win the adverse knight. If this was really the object of the rook's move, Mr. Turner evidently overlooked 19.Nxe6, and could have examined the position but very superficially indeed.
19.Nxe6 fxe6 20.Qf7+
Staunton: Mr. Stanley has now got the game in his own hands, and finishes it with his accustomed vigour and ability.
20...Qxf7 21.Rxf7+ Kg8 22.Bxe6 Re8 23.Re7+ Kf8 24.Rxe8+ Kxe8 25.Bxg4 1-0

The Late Great Match At Washington.
Second Game.

Date: 1850.02.11
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 2)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C38] King's Gambit
1.e4 e5 2.f4
Staunton: Mr. Turner, we learn, is profoundly versed in all the bookish theoric of the gambits; while Mr. Stanley is confessedly ignorant of these perilous openings both in theory and practice too.
2...exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.0-0 d6 6.c3 h6 7.d4 Ne7
Stanley: It is the opinion of Mr. Turner, whose knowledge of the opening now before us is scarcely surpassed by that of any player of the day, that this move is far preferable to 7...c6. In our own mind, late experience has given rise to a doubt, whether the latter defence is tenable.
Stanley: A most galling attack is now commenced, which is carried on with great spirit by first player.
8...g4 9.Nh4
Staunton: The attack obtained by sacrificing the knight at this point is not sufficient to warrant it in a match game.
9...f3 10.h3
Staunton: White plays this opening with great spirit and determination.
10...h5 11.Bg5 f6
Stanley: The policy of this move may be questioned, as it is equivalent to an abandonment of the option of castling on the king's side.
12.Bd2 Nd7
Staunton: Black has now a very cramped uncomfortable sort of game; his best pieces are all out of play, and those in the field have scarcely any scope for their powers.
13.Qb3 Rf8 14.Nf5 Nxf5 15.exf5 Rh8
Stanley: The loss of a piece is now inevitable, as the result will show. It would probably, therefore, be a wiser course to take the bull by the horns, and play 15...c6 or 15...Ne5.
Staunton: As the knight must perforce be played to e5 presently, it would certainly have been better to move him there at once.
Staunton: 16.Bg8 seems also a good move.
16...Kf8 17.Bg6 Qe7 18.Re1
Staunton: With so fine a position as White now has, it is difficult to understand how he could permit his advantage to ooze from him in the way he does.
18...Ne5 19.dxe5 fxe5 20.h4 Bf6 21.Na3 c6 22.Nc2 d5 23.Be3
Stanley: A judicious move; White's threatened attack on the position of adverse king requires instant attention.
23...Bxh4 24.Bf2
Stanley: To have captured 24.gxh4 would have been obviously fatal.
Staunton: If 24.gxh4, Black must have won the game.
24...Bf6 25.Qb4 Qxb4 26.Nxb4 e4 27.Bd4 Bxd4+ 28.cxd4 Kg7 29.Kf2 Kf6 30.Rh1 Kg5 31.Rh4 Bxf5 32.Bxf5 Kxf5 33.Rah1 Kg5 34.Nc2 Rad8 35.Ne3 c5 36.Rd1 Rh6 37.Rd2 Rb6
Stanley: We do not admire Black's play at this period of the game. His chance of winning would certainly not be deteriorated by 37...c4.
38.b3 a5 39.Rh1 a4 40.dxc5 Rb5 41.Rhd1 Rxc5 42.Rxd5+ Rdxd5 43.Rxd5+ Rxd5 44.Nxd5 axb3 45.axb3 h4 46.Ne3 h3
Stanley: A grave error is here committed; one, in fact, which should cost Black the game. His correct play would have been 46...hxg3+.
Staunton: This move ought to have cost the game.
47.Nf1 Kf5 48.Nh2 b5 49.Ke3 b4 50.Kd4 f2 51.Ke3
Staunton: Instead of retreating his king, he had simply to play 51.Nf1, and the adverse pawns must have fallen in detail speedily.
51...Ke5 52.Nxg4+ Kf5 53.Nxf2 h2 54.Nh1
Stanley: A singularly ill-judged move, after which the game is drawn by force.
Staunton: At this point we doubt if White could win; for suppose, 55.Kxe4 Kh3 56.Kf3 and Black is stalemated.
55.Kxe4 Kh3 ½-½

Third Game.

Date: 1850.02.11
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 3)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C26] Vienna
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Bc5 4.Nf3 d6 5.d3
Staunton: Mr. Stanley plays a more close and cautious style of game in the present match, than was his wont. We should like to have seen 5.d4.
5...h6 6.Ne2 Nc6 7.Ng3 Ne7 8.c3 Be6 9.Bb3
Staunton: 9.Bxe6, followed by 10.Qb3, looks more attacking.
9...Bb6 10.0-0 Qd7 11.Qe2 g5 12.Be3 Ng6 13.Bxe6 fxe6 14.d4 Nf4 15.Qd2 Ng6 16.dxe5 Nxe5 17.Nxe5 dxe5 18.Qxd7+ Nxd7 19.Bxb6 Nxb6
Staunton: A series of exchanges so early in the conflict, detracts very much from its after interest.
20.Rad1 Ke7 21.f3 Rad8 22.b3 Rd6 23.Nh1 Rhd8 24.Nf2 Rxd1 25.Rxd1 Rxd1+ 26.Nxd1 Nd7 27.Ne3 b5 28.b4 h5 29.Kf2 c5 30.Kg3 cxb4 31.cxb4 Kf6 32.h4 Nb6 33.hxg5+ Kxg5 34.Kf2
Staunton: An insidious retreat, tempting Black to push forward with his h-pawn or the knight, either of which must compromise his position.
Staunton: Fatal, as the least consideration would have shown.
35.Nxc4 bxc4 36.g3 1-0

Fourth Game.

Date: 1850.02.11
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 4)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C38] King's Gambit
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.c3 d6 6.d4 h6 7.0-0 Ne7 8.g3 g4 9.Nh4 f3 10.h3 h5 11.Qb3
Staunton: White might have gained a vigorous attack by sacrificing his knight at this crisis, for suppose: 11.Nxf3 gxf3 12.Qxf3 Rf8 (12...0-0 13.Bxf7+ Rxf7 (best) 14.Qxf7+ Kh8 15.Qxh5+ Kg8 16.Qf7+ Kh8 17.Rf4 and White must win easily. If he play 12...Be6, White may advance 13.d5, etc.) 13.Bxf7+ Kd7 14.Qxh5, etc.
11...Rf8 12.Qb5+ Nbc6 13.Qxh5 Ng8 14.Bg5 Bf6 15.Be3 Bd7 16.Nd2
Staunton: It appears to us that White might have won the exchange and have greatly embarrassed his opponent by now moving 16.Ng6, for if Black took the knight he must have lost the game, as the following moves will show: 16.Ng6 fxg6 17.Qxg6+ Ke7 18.e5 dxe5 19.dxe5 and must win.
16...Qe7 17.hxg4 Bxh4 18.Qxh4 Qxh4 19.gxh4 Bxg4 20.Nxf3 Na5 21.Bd3 0-0-0 22.Nh2 Bd7 23.Rf2
Staunton: This looks like lost time. He should have advanced the pawns with spirit on the king's entrenchment, in this fashion: 23.d5 b6 (to save his knight) 24.b4 Nb7 25.a4 and Black's forces are all locked up.
23...Rde8 24.Bd2 Ne7 25.Bg5 Ng6 26.h5 Ne7 27.Bxe7
Staunton: Mr. Turner has an aptitude for gaining and throwing away an attack that is truly remarkable. Who would have supposed that such an advantage as White had gained in the first dozen moves, could have dwindled away to nothing by this time?
27...Rxe7 28.Rg2 f5 29.exf5 Re3 30.Bc2 Bc6 31.Rg5 Nc4 32.Rf1 Nd2 33.Rd1 Re2
Staunton: Well played, as we shall find directly.
34.Bd3 Rxh2 35.Kxh2 Nf3+ 36.Kg3 Nxg5 37.Kf4 Ne6+ 38.Ke3 Ng7 39.Kf4 Nxh5+ 40.Kg5 Rg8+ 41.Kh6
Staunton: It is quite evident that by taking the knight he must have lost his rook.
41...Nf4 42.f6 Be8 43.Bf5+ Kd8 44.Rf1 Nh5 45.Bh7 Rf8 46.Kg5 Bf7 47.Rf3 Rh8 48.Kh6 Ke8 49.b3 Kf8 50.c4 Bg8 51.Kxh5 Rxh7+ 52.Kg6 Rh4 53.d5 Bh7+ 54.Kg5 Re4 55.Kh6 Kf7
Staunton: Threatening mate, if the bishop is taken.
56.a4 a5 57.Rg3 Rh4+ 58.Kg5 Rh1 59.Re3 Rg1+ 60.Kh6 Bf5 61.b4 Kxf6 62.Kh5 Rh1+ 0-1

Tuesday, 12 February 1850

Our Washington Correspondence.
Washington, Feb. 13, 1850.

[...] On Tuesday, Mr. Stanley won two games and Mr. Turner two.

Fifth Game.

Date: 1850.02.12
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 5)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C42] Russian
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nxe4 4.Nxe5 d5 5.Qe2
Staunton: If 5.Bb3, his opponent answers with 5...Qg5, and gets the better game.
5...Be6 6.Bb3 Bc5 7.0-0 Qd6 8.Nf3 h6 9.Nc3 Nxc3 10.bxc3 0-0 11.d4 Bb6 12.a4 Re8
Staunton: Throwing away a clear piece. Why not have advanced the a-pawn, and then if White attacked the queen with 13.Ba3, have played 13...c5?
13.a5 Nd7 14.axb6 Bg4 15.Qd3 Nxb6 16.Ne5 Bh5 17.Qf5 Bg6 18.Nxg6 fxg6 19.Qg4 Re6 20.Ba3 Qd7 21.Bc5 Kh7 22.Bxb6 cxb6 23.Qf3 Re4 24.Rae1 Rae8 25.Rxe4 Rxe4 26.h3 a5 27.c4 Rxd4 28.Rd1 Rxd1+ 29.Qxd1 d4 30.Qd3 Qe7 31.Qxd4 Qc7 32.Qd5 Qf4 33.g3 Qb8 34.c3 Qc8 35.Kg2 Qc6 36.Qxc6 bxc6 37.Ba4 c5 38.Kf3 g5 39.Ke4 h5 40.Kd5 h4 41.g4 1-0

The Late Great Match At Washington.
Sixth Game.

Date: 1850.02.12
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 6)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C38] King's Gambit
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.0-0 h6 6.c3 d6 7.d4 Ne7 8.g3 g4 9.Nh4 f3 10.h3 h5 11.Qb3
Staunton: White might have gained a fine attack and have ensured the winning a piece in return, by taking 11.Nxf3 at his juncture (see the first note to a similar position in the fourth game).
Stanley: The combination now about to be developed is of bold conception on the part of Black; his entire defence from this point being conducted on the system of counter attack; and that of the most violent and fearless order.
Stanley: It will be observed that the winning of the exchange is already assured to Mr. Turner; the loss of which, however, has evidently been taken into the calculations of his adversary.
12...Qe8 13.Bxe7 Qxe7 14.Ng6
Staunton: This seems to give White some advantage; but his opponent very quickly turns the tables on him, as will be seen.
14...Qxe4 15.Nxf8 d5
Stanley: A killing move; annihilation would speedily follow any attempt on the part of White to preserve the bishop, as, should he capture 16.Bxd5, Black plays 16...Qe2, forcing a checkmate instanter.
Staunton: A master-touch. Nullifying all White's fine attack, and winning a piece off-hand.
Stanley: No doubt his best play under the circumstances, which, however, are adverse in the extreme.
Staunton: Had he taken 16.Bxd5, Black would have played 16...Qe2, and have won easily.
16...Qe3+ 17.Rf2 dxc4 18.Nxc4 Qe4 19.Nd2 Qc6 20.d5 Qb6 21.Qc2 Bxf8 22.Re1 Bc5 23.Re8+ Kg7 24.Ne4 Bf5 25.Qd2 Be3 0-1
Stanley: We are informed by Mr. Turner that his faith in the King's Knight's Gambit was somewhat shaken by this result; and throughout the remainder of the games forming the Washington match, we consequently find no more gambits.
Staunton: The last few moves are in Mr. Stanley's best style; and the game altogether a brilliant and amusing specimen of the gambit.

The Late Great Match At Washington.—[...] Subsequently to this period of the match, Mr. Turner scored five, against the six obtained by Mr. Stanley [...]

The Late Great Match At Washington.
Seventh Game.

Date: 1850.02.12
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 7)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C26] Vienna
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Bc5 4.d3 d6 5.Be3 Bb6 6.Nf3 h6 7.Qd2 Be6 8.Bb3 Nc6 9.Ne2 Ne7 10.Ng3 Qd7 11.c3 c6
Staunton: The opening of this game is remarkable for nothing but the timid sameness of the play on both sides.
12.d4 Ng6 13.Rd1 Rd8 14.Qc2 Qe7 15.0-0 0-0 16.Nf5 Bxf5 17.exf5 Nf4 18.Bxf4 exf4 19.Rde1 Qd7 20.Nh4
Staunton: 20.Red6 would be showy but unsound.
Stanley: Profitting by late experience in the Giuoco Piano opening Mr. Turner has on this occasion played warily and well. We should now take his game, for choice.
21.Qd2 Bc7 22.Bc2 Rfe8 23.Nf3
Stanley: An apparent want of fixedness of purpose on the part of Black augurs but ill for his success.
23...Ne4 24.Bxe4
Staunton: He must exchange, disadvantageous as it is to do so, or lose his f5-pawn at once. We should have preferred the latter alternative we believe.
24...dxe4 25.Nh4 Qe7 26.g3 Qg5
Staunton: Threatening to gain a pawn at least.
27.Qc2 e3 28.Nf3 Qg4
Staunton: Better perhaps to have taken 28...exf2+.
29.fxe3 fxg3 30.hxg3 Bxg3 31.Re2 Bf4+ 32.Rg2 Bxe3+ 33.Kh1 Qh3+ 34.Nh2 Rd7 35.Qe2
Staunton: Having in view the playing Rf3.
35...Rde7 36.Rxg7+
Stanley: A desperate effort is now commenced by Mr. Stanley to retrieve a bad game; the chess student will do well to examine with care the moves now made by either party.
36...Kxg7 37.f6+ Kf8 38.fxe7+ Rxe7 39.Rf3 Qe6 40.Ng4 Bg5
Staunton: Our young friends on looking well at the position, will soon understand why Black does not take the knight.
41.Ne5 Kg7 42.Qe4 f6 43.Qg6+ Kf8
Staunton: 43...Kh8 look better, because it leave the adverse knight en prise.
44.Qh5 Rg7 45.c4 Kg8 46.Qg4 Qe8 47.Nd3 Be3 48.Qh4 Rg1+
Staunton: 48...Rg5 seems preferable.
49.Kh2 Qb8+ 50.Nf4 Bxd4
Stanley: Sailing very close to the wind; the greatest care is still necessary to keep out of the breakers.
51.Rg3+ Rxg3 52.Qxg3+ Kf7
Stanley: Wisely avoiding the knight's check, which would have proved fatal.
Staunton: If 52...Kh8, or 52...Kf8, he must evidently have lost his queen.
53.Qg6+ Ke7 54.Qg7+ Kd6 55.b4 c5 56.Kh1
Stanley: We are inclined to think that 56.Nd5 would have been better play.
56...Qe8 57.bxc5+ Kc6 58.Qg2+ Kc7 59.Nd5+ Kb8 60.Qh2+
Stanley: Decidedly inferior to 60.Qg3+. The latter move would have necessitated 60...Be5, rendering ultimate victory on his part, at least difficult, if not doubtful.
60...Qe5 61.a4 Qxh2+ 62.Kxh2 Kc8 63.Kh3 Kd7 (...) 0-1

Chess In The United States.
Continuation Of The Games In The Late Great Match At Washington.

Date: 1850.02.12
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 8)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C53] Italian
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.0-0
Staunton: The usual play now is 5.d4; and if the second player take 5...exd4, to castle immediately. Instead of taking the pawn, he may, however, retreat his bishop, but in any case we think the first player has the advantage. Let us suppose: 5.d4 Bb6 6.dxe5 Nxe5 7.Nxe5 Qxe5 8.0-0 d6 9.Kh1 Be6 10.f4, etc.
5...d6 6.d4 Bb6 7.h3 Nf6 8.Re1 0-0 9.Bg5 Nd8 10.Bh4 h6 11.Nbd2 Kh8 12.Bg3 exd4 13.cxd4 Nh7 14.e5 dxe5 15.Nxe5 Qg5 16.Ndf3 Qf6 17.d5 Bc5 18.Nd2 Bf5 19.Ne4 Qb6 20.Qf3 Bxe4 21.Qxe4 Nf6 22.Qf5 Kg8 23.Bh4 g5
Staunton: Desperate temerity in the face of such a position as White has got.
Staunton: The prominent defect in this gentleman's play is, that when he has gained an advantage, whether of situation of material, he never clinches it. Why this pusillanimous retreat, when a few bold steps must lead to victory? Let us suppose that he has played instead 24.Bd3 Kg7 (this appears to be as good a move as he can make to avert the fatal consequences of White's threatened play of 25.Nd7 or 25.Ng4) 25.Bxg5 hxg5 26.Qxg5+ Kh8 27.Qh6+ Kg8 28.Nd7 and Black cannot save the game.
24...Kg7 25.h4 g4 26.Nxg4 Nxg4 27.Qxg4+ Qg6 28.Qf3 c6 29.Bd3 f5 30.Be5+ Kg8 31.dxc6 Nxc6 32.Qd5+ Kh7 33.Qxc5
Staunton: And White ultimately won the game.
(...) 1-0

Wednesday, 13 February 1850

Our Washington Correspondence.
Washington, Feb. 13, 1850.

[...] This morning (Wednesday) Mr. Turner was the winner of the only game which has been played up to dinner time. The longest game yet disposed of, was that of to-day, which lasted two hours and twenty minutes; the shortest, a very brilliant one, in which Mr. Stanley was victor, was over in twenty minutes. Great interest prevails here regarding this war of skill, but only in consequence of Mr. Stanley's established reputation as the best chess player in America, and the high value set upon Mr. Turner's capabilities wherever he is known; but because the contest is carried on in a mast chivalrous spirit, and with an unfeigned appreciation on either side of the qualities and skill of the other.

I strongly suspect given the era, that dinner in this context, i.e. "This morning", would have been the noon meal, or more commonly known today as lunch. This would allow for a large number of games to still be played during the remainder of the day. As the participants were on a four-game-per-day pace, it would appear that three or four additional games could have been played on Wednesday with the remaining games contested on Thursday.

Thursday, 14 February 1850

Date: 1850.02.14
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 14)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C53] Italian
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.0-0 d6 6.d4 Bb6 7.a4 a6 8.b4 Nf6 9.b5 axb5 10.Bxb5 0-0 11.Bxc6 bxc6 12.Bg5 h6 13.Bxf6 Qxf6 14.dxe5 dxe5 15.h3 Be6 16.Nbd2 Rfd8 17.Qe2 Ra5 18.Qd1
Staunton: What could this be for?
18...Qg6 19.Kh2 Bc4 20.Qc2 Bd3 21.Qb3 Bxf1 22.Rxf1 Qe6 23.Qxe6 fxe6 24.Nc4 Rxa4 25.Nfxe5 Rda8 26.f4 Ra1 27.Rf3 Re1 28.f5 exf5 29.exf5 Ra2 30.f6 Bg1+ 31.Kg3 gxf6 32.Rxf6 Ree2 33.Rg6+ Kh7 34.Rxc6 Rxg2+ 35.Kf3 Raf2+ 36.Ke4 Re2+ 37.Kd5 Rg7 38.Na3 Re7 39.Ng4 Rd7+ 40.Kc4 Kg7 41.Nxh6 Rf2 42.Ng4 Rf3 43.Nb5 Rf4+ 44.Kb3 Bb6 45.Na3
Staunton: 45.Ne5 looks more to the purpose. In that case the following moves are likely: 45.Ne5 Rd5 46.Nxc7 Bxc7 (46...Rxe5 47.Rxb6 and White has a fair chance of making a drawn battle) 47.Rxc7+ and White ought to draw the game.
45...Rd6 46.Rc4 Rxc4 47.Nxc4 Re6 48.Nce5 Bc5 49.Nf3 Kg6 50.Kc4 Bd6 51.Kd5 Re2 52.c4 Rc2 53.Nfe5+ Kh5 54.Kc6 Kh4 55.Ne3 Rf2 56.N3g4 Rf5 57.Kd5 Kg5 58.c5
Staunton: A fatal error. He should have played 58.Ke6.
58...Bxe5 59.Nxe5 Kf6 60.Kc6 Rxe5 61.Kb5 Ke7 0-1

Date: 1850.02.14
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 15)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C50] Bishop's Opening
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Bc5 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.d3 Nf6 5.Be3 Bb6 6.Nc3 d6 7.Ne2 Be6 8.Bb3 h6 9.Ng3 Bg4 10.h3 Bxf3 11.Qxf3 Bxe3 12.fxe3 Ne7 13.0-0 Qd7 14.Nh5 Neg8
Staunton: It is pretty evident that on taking 14...Nxh5 he must have lost a knight and pawn in return, besides the privilege of castling.
15.Nxg7+ Kd8 16.Nh5 Nxh5 17.Qxh5 f6 18.Qg6 Qe8 19.Bf7 Qf8 20.Rf2
Staunton: He might have won another pawn by 20.Bxg8 at this moment.
20...Ke7 21.Bb3 h5 22.Raf1 Rh6 23.Qf5 Re8 24.Qe6+ Kd8 25.Qxg8 Qxg8 26.Rxf6
Staunton: Few mental tasks require the faculties to be more nicely attuned than chess playing. Here is an oversight which would appear incredible to any one who had not experienced the remarkable influence which even a slight derangement of health exercises over the reason and memory in this game. White obviously intended 26.Bxg8 and then the pawn, but by the absurd hysteron proteron of taking the pawn first loses a won game.
26...Qg5 0-1

Date: 1850.02.14
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 16)
White: Turner,JH
Black: Stanley,CH
Opening: [C53] Italian
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.0-0 d6 6.d4 Bb6 7.a4 a6 8.Na3 Nf6 9.Re1 0-0 10.h3 exd4 11.cxd4 Nxe4
Staunton: This smacks a little too much of the go-a-head school for an important match game. Black, however, had probably by this time got so many games in advance, that he could afford to risk one without much danger.
12.Bd5 Bf5 13.Ng5
Staunton: 13.Bg5 with the object of forcing 13...Qe8, seems at first sight a good preliminary move here, but upon examination, it leads to no better result for White than the play adopted.
13...Nxf2 14.Kxf2 Qf6 15.Nf3 Nxd4 16.Be3 Ne6 17.Bxb6
Staunton: We should have preferred playing 17.Nc4.
17...Qxb2+ 18.Qd2 Qxb6+ 19.Qe3 Qb2+ 20.Qe2 Qf6 21.Be4 Nd4 22.Qd3 Nxf3 23.Qxf3 Qb2+ 24.Kf1 Bxe4 25.Qxe4 h6 26.Nc4 Qf6+ 27.Kg1 Rae8 28.Qd3 b5 29.Ne3 Re6 30.Nd5 Qh4 31.Rxe6 fxe6 32.Nxc7 Qf2+ 33.Kh1 Qf6 34.Rd1 Qe5 35.axb5
Staunton: If he had ventured to take 35.Qxd6, Black would have won the game off hand: 35.Qxd6 Rf1+ 36.Rxf1 (must) 36...Qxd6.
35...axb5 36.Qxb5 d5 37.Qa5
Staunton: This is purposeless. Why not 37.Qd7? For suppose: 37.Qd7 Rf6 38.Qe8+ Kh7 39.Nxd5 R-moves 40.Ne7 and White must win.
37...Rc8 38.Na6
Staunton: This portion of the game is very indifferently played by Mr. Turner.
38...Qe2 39.Qe1
Staunton: Why give up the piece? 39.Re1 would have saved it, and at the same time have obliged Black to look to his own safety.
39...Qxa6 40.Qe5 Rf8 41.Re1 Rf1+ 42.Kh2 Rxe1 43.Qxe1 Qd6+ 44.Kh1 d4 45.Qe4 Qd7
Staunton: And Black ultimately won the game.
(...) 0-1

Date: 1850.02.14
Site: USA Washington, DC
Event: 1850 United States Championship (Game 17)
White: Stanley,CH
Black: Turner,JH
Opening: [C26] Vienna
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Bc5 4.d3 d6 5.Nf3 h6 6.Be3 Bb6 7.Ne2 Be6 8.Bb3 Nc6 9.Ng3 Qd7 10.c3 Ne7 11.d4 Ng6 12.h3
Staunton: Threatening to win a piece next move.
12...Qe7 13.Ba4+ Kf8
Staunton: If he had interposed 13...Nd7, White would have won the bishop; if he had played 13...Bd7, White would have planted his knight at f5, with a fine attacking position; and if lastly he had played 13...c6, White, by advancing 14.d5, must have gained an advantage in situation immediately.
14.0-0 c6 15.Bc2 Rd8 16.Qd2 Qd7 17.Nf5 Bxf5 18.exf5 e4
Staunton: This is bad enough, but it is hard to find him a better resource.
19.Nh2 Ne7 20.Ng4 Nxg4 21.hxg4 d5 22.f3 exf3 23.f6
Staunton: The terminating moves are capitally played by Mr. Stanley.
23...Ng6 24.Bxg6 fxg6 25.Rxf3
Staunton: And in a few moves Black struck his flag.
(...) 1-0

Friday, 15 February 1850

On Friday evening, the 15th of February, 1850, at precisely eight o'clock, the doors of the White House were flung open for the entrance of any white human being who chose to enter therein, take a look at, and shake hands with the chief magistrate of twenty and odd millions of people. [...]

Com. Moore and Capt. Boyle, Elwood Fisher and three Mohawks, were there also. These two young Mohawk squaws looked superb, they were the only two people in the room who kept their hats on. They are Christians, and with their brother, are to give an Indian concert to-morrow night at the Temperance Hall. They were decidedly the lionesses of the East room, and are really pretty. The lions of the night were first Dr. Gwin, of California, and the two great chess players, Stanley and Turner. Mr. Stanley finished his games yesterday, winning eleven to his antagonist's five.—He drew the $2000 to-day from Corcoran and Riggs, and pockets a clear tin, $1000.

The following etching by the Henry Kinnersley and David G Johnson company, New York, is stated by Miron J. Hazeltine, in Brevity and Brilliancy in Chess, New York 1866, p(xi), to be of "J. H. Turner, Esq. against Charles H. Stanley, Esq., with the renowned Herr J. Löwenthal honoring the contest with his presence. The match was fought at Washington some 20 years since [...]"

Based upon Löwenthal's recollection (quoted in part below) of arriving in New York with Stanley leaving shortly thereafter for Washington, and then "when he returned victorious, he introduced me to the leading members of the New York Chess Circle", making absolutely no mention of journeying to Washington to witness the match, I strongly suspect that the etching is actually based upon the daguerreotype Stanley offers up as a prize in 1854 (see Albion quotes below). The daguerreotype was probably produced in New York, after the match in Washington and prior to Turner and Löwenthal departing for Kentucky on March 3rd, 1850.

It is also worth mentioning that the Albion of February 9, 1850, makes no mention of Löwenthal departing with Stanley when the latter leaves for Washington.

Seated (left to right): C. H. Stanley and J. H. Turner
Standing: J. J. Löwenthal

VII. Löwenthal's Visit To America. [...]

I arrived in New York from Hamburgh [sic], on the 29th Dec., 1849. [...]

One day, oppressed by the feeling of loneliness which comes over a stranger in a crowded city, and perplexed at the dark prospects before me, I wandered into a reading-room and took up the New York Albion. The first thing which caught my eye was a diagram with a position upon it. If a benevolent magician had waved his hand over me, the change could not have been greater. In a moment my old love for Chess revived, with a vividness I had never before experienced. It seemed as if it had grown into a passion after, for a few weeks, lying latent. The sense of loneliness vanished. I could find Chess-players, and a common love for Chess was, I knew, a sort of freemasonry. I could not leave the room before I had solved the problem. All night I fought in dreams many old battles over again, and anticipated combats yet to come. The next morning I called on the editor of the Albion, who received me very kindly, and gave me his card as an introduction to Mr. Stanley of the British Consulate—a gentleman with whose name I was already familiar. Mr. Stanley gave me a most hospitable reception. I spent that evening at his house, and played with him; the result being, I think, even games. In Mr. Stanley's style of play, I found very much to admire, particularly the originality and invention displayed by him in the openings. This was especially remarkable in the Knight's Game, in which he introduced the method, since approved by the best Chess authorities, of bringing both the Knights over to the King's side, thus giving, additional safety to the King, and preparing a strong attack. I cannot allow the opportunity to pass, without expressing the deep obligations Mr. Stanley placed me under by his unvarying kindness, and the constant exertions he made to advance my interests.

It was about this time that Mr. Stanley left for Washington, to play his match with Mr. Turner; and when he returned victorious, he introduced me to the leading members of the New York Chess Circle, who were in the habit of meeting at the Carlton House, Broadway. There I met Mr. Thompson, whose frequent visits to Europe had caused him to be well known in European Chess circles, and in several encounters with him I had much the best of the play. I also made the acquaintance of Mr. Perrin, the present Honorary Secretary of the New York Chess Club, and Mr. Evert, to both of whom I successfully gave odds.

My first formal match was with Mr. Turner. It was arranged for me by the kind offices of Mr. Stanley and Mr. Thompson, and was played at New York. In this and another match, which immediately followed, I was the conqueror; but I regret to say that I have not preserved any of the games. Mr. Turner struck me as a player of great natural talent and strong imagination, but somewhat too liable to be carried away by a brilliant combination or a dashing coup. In Mr. Turner I found a generous friend. He kindly invited me to accompany him to his residence near Lexington (Kentucky); my old thought of turning farmer reviving, I accepted the invitation. We left on the 3d of March, 1850.

By the way we should much like to get up among our contributors a little spirit of rivalry in the matter of original Problems; and for the encouragement thereof know ye that C. H. S. has a fine Daguerreotype Chess Picture, containing capital likenesses of the parties by whom the well known match at Washington was contested (J. W [sic]. T. and C. H. S.); also of Mr. Lowenthal, the celebrated Hungarian player, as a looker of the game. The picture C. H. S. proposes to present to the author of The Best Five Move Problem contributed for publication to this paper. A committee of three amateurs to award the prize; and tenders to be sent in prior to the 10th day of February, 1855.

The Five Move Prize Problems.—In accordance with the unanimous decision of three members of the New York Chess Club, who kindly consented to act as a Committee for such purpose, the prize offered for the best five move Problem contributed for publication in this journal has been awarded to our old and clever correspondent Mr. Denis Julien, as author of Problem No. 321, the first of this Series. We fully concur in this decision; and congratulate D. J. the more heartily on his success in that, among his rival competitors were some of our very able contributors—inclusive of E. B. C. and F. B.

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